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(1) For rolled products, a distortion of the surface of sheet such as a bulge or a wave, usually transverse to the direction of rolling. Often described by location across width, i.e., edge buckle, quarter buckle, center buckle, etc. (2) For extrusions, flatness (off contour) pertains to the deviation of a cross section surface intended to be flat. Flatness can be affected by conditions such as die performance, thermal effects and stretching