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Archimedes Screw Pumps

This pump is at least 2,000 years old.
The Archimedes Screw (also called an Archimedes Snail) was used for irrigation and powered by horses, people, mules, etc. This pump is even used today, although rarely!

The helix revolves inside a tube (only the bottom of the tube is shown) and the water rises accordingly.

Whether or not it was actually invented by Archimedes is certainly debatable, though his overall brilliance is not.

Archimedes Screw Pump