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(1) Introduction of one or more elements into the outer layer of a metal object by means of diffusion at high temperature. (2) An obsolete process used to convert wrought iron to blister steel by carburizing. Wrought iron bars were packed in sealed chests with charcoal and heated at about 2000 F (1100 C) for 6 to 8 days. Cementation was the predominant method of manufacturing steels particularly high carbon tool steels, prior to the introduction of the bessemer and open hearth methods.